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Vampire lore

vampire lore

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Vampire Lore Video

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In his book " Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality " Yale, , folklorist Paul Barber noted that centuries ago, "Often potential revenants can be identified at birth, usually by some abnormality, some defect, as when a child is born with teeth.

Similarly suspicious are children born with an extra nipple in Romania, for example ; with a lack of cartilage in the nose, or a split lower lip in Russia … When a child is born with a red caul, or amniotic membrane, covering its head, this was regarded throughout much of Europe as presumptive evidence that it is destined to return from the dead.

The belief in vampires stems from superstition and mistaken assumptions about postmortem decay. The first recorded accounts of vampires follow a consistent pattern: Some unexplained misfortune would befall a person, family or town — perhaps a drought dried up crops, or an infectious disease struck.

Before science could explain weather patterns and germ theory, any bad event for which there was not an obvious cause might be blamed on a vampire.

Vampires were one easy answer to the age-old question of why bad things happen to good people. Villagers combined their belief that something had cursed them with fear of the dead, and concluded that perhaps the recently deceased might be responsible, having come back from the graves with evil intent.

Graves were unearthed, and surprised villagers often mistook ordinary decomposition processes for supernatural phenomenon. For example, though laypeople might assume that a body would decompose immediately, if the coffin is well sealed and buried in winter, putrefaction might be delayed by weeks or months; intestinal decomposition creates bloating which can force blood up into the mouth, making it look like a dead body has recently sucked blood.

These processes are well understood by modern doctors and morticians, but in medieval Europe were taken as unmistakable signs that vampires were real and existed among them.

The best way to deal with vampires, of course, is to prevent them from coming back in the first place. This tradition was later reflected in popular fiction depicting wooden stakes as dispatching vampires.

There was no particular significance to using wood; according to folklore, vampires — like djinn genies and many other magical creatures — fear iron, so an iron bar would be even more effective than a wooden stake.

In fact, suspected vampire graves have been found with just such signs. According to a Live Science article, "The body of the woman was found in a mass grave on the Venetian island of Nuovo Lazzaretto.

Whether that burial reflected an accused vampire or not, other graves are much clearer. If your local villagers neglected to unearth and stake a suspected vampire and he or she has returned from the grave, there are steps you can take to protect yourself.

The exact method varies around the world, but in some traditions the best way to stop a vampire is to carry a small bag of salt with you.

If you are being chased, you need only to spill the salt on the ground behind you, at which point the vampire is obligated to stop and count each and every grain before continuing the pursuit.

Salt was often placed above and around doorways for the same reason. Some traditions hold that vampires cannot enter a home unless formally invited in.

This may have been an early form of the modern "stranger danger" warnings to children, a scary reminder against inviting unknown people into the house.

There are, of course, a few truly vampiric animals, including leeches, lampreys and vampire bats. But what about human vampires? There are certainly many self-identified vampires who participate in gothic-inspired subcultures.

Some host vampire-themed book clubs or secret bloodletting rituals; others wear capes or get vampire-fang dental implants.

Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. The Persians were one of the first civilisations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies, [62] and estries , female shape-changing, blood-drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims.

According to Sefer Hasidim , estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested. An injured estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker.

Greco-Roman mythology described the Empusae , [64] the Lamia , [65] and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively.

Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze -footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood.

They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix , a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.

Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants, [18] [67] though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant.

He linked this event to the lack of a shmirah guarding after death as the corpse could be a vessel for evil spirits. Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries.

These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized.

One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia , in Local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow.

The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.

During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants.

Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food.

When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood.

The two incidents were well-documented. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe.

The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.

In , King James wrote a dissertation on witchcraft titled Daemonologie in which he wrote the belief that demons could possess both the living and the dead.

Within his classification of demons , he explained the concept through the notion that incubi and succubae could possess the corpse of the deceased and walk the earth.

As a devil borrows a dead body, it would seem so visibly and naturally to any man who converses with them and that any substance within the body would remain intolerably cold to others which they abuse.

In the Greek librarian of the Vatican, Leo Allatius , produced the first methodological description of the Balkan beliefs in vampires Greek: From , Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, a subject resumed by Otto in , and then by Michael Ranft in The subject was based on the observation that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs.

Theologians and clergymen also address the topic. Some theological disputes arose. A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione , On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini Pope Benedict XIV.

In other words, vampires did not exist. Dom Augustine Calmet , a French theologian and scholar, published a comprehensive treatise in titled Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants which investigated the existence of vampires, demons, and spectres.

Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed judicial reports of vampiric incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well, using the scientific method in his analysis to come up with methods for determining the validity for cases of this nature.

As he stated in his treatise: These revenants are called by the name of oupires or vampires, that is to say, leeches ; and such particulars are related of them, so singular, so detailed, and invested with such probable circumstances and such judicial information, that one can hardly refuse to credit the belief which is held in those countries, that these revenants come out of their tombs and produce those effects which are proclaimed of them.

Calmet had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and numerous supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed.

These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries.

The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption ; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite.

The controversy in Austria only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten , to investigate the claims of vampiric entities.

He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics.

Other European countries followed suit. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local folklore. Classified as vampires, all share the thirst for blood.

Various regions of Africa have folktales featuring beings with vampiric abilities: The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo.

The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou meaning "werewolf" and is common in the culture of Mauritius. During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England , particularly in Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut.

There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never used to describe the dead.

The deadly disease tuberculosis , or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.

Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.

Vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema since the late s; the folklore behind it is western in origin. There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night.

The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women.

They also prefer to eat entrails specifically the heart and the liver and the phlegm of sick people. The Malaysian Penanggalan is a woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature.

She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children.

Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.

This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s.

In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons.

In early local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery.

Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the " Highgate Vampire " and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.

Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend. In , a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression.

According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January , and it fed once a month which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore , and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.

In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra "goat-sucker" of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals , leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.

The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mids.

In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being; many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes.

In some cases, especially in small localities, beliefs are still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently.

In Romania during February , several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.

An alternative collective noun is a "house" of vampires. Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs and related mass hysteria.

Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.

People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known.

This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.

Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth. This causes the body to look "plump", "well-fed", and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life.

Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus.

The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".

After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw.

This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".

It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time.

In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape.

In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding". An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.

Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community.

As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague , it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.

In biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem , he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream.

Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms. The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease.

Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional bloodsucking vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.

In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore.

The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns thus becoming nocturnal and hypersexuality.

Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection.

Wolves and bats , which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.

In his treatise On the Nightmare , Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms.

Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same.

From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first. In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety.

This may lead to repression , which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread. The sexual aspect may or may not be present.

People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.

The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus -like behaviour.

Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious.

Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism ; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.

The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. In his entry for "Vampires" in the Dictionnaire philosophique , Voltaire notices how the midth century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now "there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted.

These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces". Marx defined capital as "dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks".

A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture , who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films , the fiction of Anne Rice , and the styles of Victorian England.

Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore.

Vampire bats were integrated into vampire folklore after they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century.

The three species of vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory.

It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from and the zoological not until The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it.

The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel in history: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.

Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.

Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid- Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest , which first appeared from to in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.

It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney. Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.

Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and Carmilla , Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires.

The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil.

The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.

Vampires in the Twilight series — by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status.

Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries.

Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes , and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it.

These included the German silent film Nosferatu , directed by F. The legend of the vampire continued through the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated in the pertinent Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.

The successful Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.

The Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows , on American television from to and produced by Dan Curtis , featured the vampire character Barnabas Collins , portrayed by Canadian actor Jonathan Frid , which proved partly responsible for making the series one of the most popular of its type, amassing a total of 1, episodes in its nearly five-year run.

The pilot for the later Dan Curtis television series Kolchak: Archaeologists, historians, and forensic scientists revisit the days of vampire hysteria in the eighteenth-century Czech Republic and re-open the unholy grave of dark princess Eleonore von Schwarzenberg.

They uncover her story, once buried and long forgotten, now raised from the dead. The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in , featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto , with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role.

It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol. The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors:

Some theological disputes arose. They were described barca live having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strixa kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood. Vampires tend to be organized into many different clans; in fact, there are over a cypergost distinct kinds of vampire in Tamriel. He covers wild water netent slot, psychology, urban legends and the science behind "unexplained" or mysterious phenomenon. The characterization of Tepes as a vampire, however, is formel 1 belgien 2019 distinctly Western one; in Romania, he is viewed not as a blood-drinking sadist but as a national hero who defended his empire from the Ottoman Turks. Ukrainian and Belarusian legends are more "conventional", although in Ukraine the vampires may sometimes not be described as dead at all, [54] heinz bedeutung may be seen as engaging in vampirism long before death. Lamae is seemingly responsible for the creation of several other bloodlines aside from her own, whether this ability is unique to her as the first vampire or a seemingly potent ability of her bloodline to create a sub-bloodline is unknown. In Reinhard Breymayer; Hartmut Froeschle. The Malaysian Penanggalan may be either a beautiful old or young woman who obtained mit telefonrechnung bezahlen beauty through the mit telefonrechnung bezahlen use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklores to be dark or demonic in nature. Classified as vampires, all share mit telefonrechnung bezahlen thirst for blood. Reduces the chance of being affected by harmful vampire powers.

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Vrykolakas were usually thought to be indistinguishable from living people, giving rise to many folk tales with this theme. To prevent vampires from rising from the dead, their hearts were pierced with iron nails while resting in their graves, or their bodies burned and the ashes scattered.

Because the Church opposed burning people who had received the myron of chrismation in the baptism ritual, cremation was considered a last resort.

That demon was described as a wild entity that could eventually be called to destroy the enemies of the pagans. The word has its roots in the ancient Turkish language , with which the Hungarians made contact during the late 8th century in the regions between Asia and Europe.

The Icelandic Draugur plural draugar is usually translated as "ghost", but unlike mainland ghosts Icelandic undead were believed to be corporeal.

These draugar are depicted as being driven by greed and unwillingness to part with their worldly belongings and are in many ways similar to dragons.

The second category are "tilberadraugar" a tilberi is a type of undead in Icelandic folklore, a human rib given life by drinking the blood of a witch and then sent out to steal milk and money.

Decapitation of the suspected corpse was common as was driving nails or sharp stakes into the body to pin it down or into the grave.

Romanian vampires were known as moroi from the Romanian word "mort" meaning "dead" or the Slavic word meaning "nightmare" and strigoi , with the latter classified as either living or dead.

Live strigoi were described as living witches with two hearts or souls, sometimes both. Similarly, dead strigoi were described as reanimated corpses that also sucked blood and attacked their living family.

Live strigoi became revenants after their death, but there were also many other ways of a person becoming a vampire.

A person born with a caul , an extra nipple, a tail, or extra hair [39] was doomed to become a vampire. The same fate applied to the seventh child in any family if all of his or her previous siblings were of the same sex, as well as someone born too early or someone whose mother had encountered a black cat crossing her path.

If a pregnant woman did not eat salt or was looked upon by a vampire or a witch, her child would also become a vampire. So too would a child born out of wedlock.

Others who were at risk of becoming vampires were those who died an unnatural death or before baptism. Finally, a person with red hair and blue eyes was seen as a potential strigoi.

Another type of Romanian vampire is pricolici. These types are humans born with a tail, and they can shape shift like a werewolf but they have control over their transformation.

Their entire power is kept in their tail. In undeath, the pricolici remain in their wolf form. Romanian vampires were said to bite their victims over the heart or between the eyes, [41] and sudden deaths could indicate the presence of a vampire.

Graves were often opened five or seven years after burial and the corpse checked for vampirism, before being washed and reburied.

The malign and succubus -like Baobhan sith from the Scottish Highlands [44] and the Lhiannan Shee of the Isle of Man , Scotland and Ireland , are two fairy spirits with decidedly vampiric tendencies.

Some of the more common causes of vampirism in Slavic folklore include being a magician or an immoral person; suffering an "unnatural" or untimely death such as suicide; excommunication ; improper burial rituals; an animal jumping or a bird flying over the corpse or the empty grave in Serbian folk belief ; and even being born with a caul , [49] teeth, or tail, or being conceived on certain days.

In southern Russia, people who were known to talk to themselves were believed to be at risk of becoming vampires. Among the beliefs of the East Slavs , those of the northern regions i.

Ukrainian and Belarusian legends are more "conventional", although in Ukraine the vampires may sometimes not be described as dead at all, [54] or may be seen as engaging in vampirism long before death.

Ukrainian folklore also described vampires as having red faces and tiny tails. In South Slavic folklore, a vampire was believed to pass through several distinct stages in its development.

The first 40 days were considered decisive for the making of a vampire; it started out as an invisible shadow and then gradually gained strength from the lifeblood of the living, forming a typically invisible jelly-like, boneless mass, and eventually building up a human-like body nearly identical to the one the person had had in life.

This development allowed the creature to ultimately leave its grave and begin a new life as a human. The vampire, who was usually male, was also sexually active and could have children, either with his widow or a new wife.

These could become vampires themselves, but could also have a special ability to see and kill vampires, allowing them to become vampire hunters.

To be killed, a wooden stake must be thrust through them. In Croatia , Slovenia , the Czech Republic , and Slovakia , a type of vampire called pijavica , which literally translates to "leech", is used to describe a vampire who has led an evil and sinful life as a human and in turn, becomes a powerfully strong, cold-blooded killer.

Incest, especially between mother and son, is one of the ways in which a pijavica can be created, and then it usually comes back to victimize its former family, who can only protect their homes by placing mashed garlic and wine at their windows and thresholds to keep it from entering.

It can only be killed by fire while awake and by using the Rite of Exorcism if found in its grave during the day.

To ward off the threat of vampires and disease, twin brothers would yoke twin oxen to a plow and make a furrow with it around their village.

An egg would be broken and a nail driven into the floor beneath the bier of the house of a recently deceased person. Two or three elderly women would attend the cemetery the evening after the funeral and stick five hawthorn pegs or old knives into the grave: Other texts maintain that running backwards uphill with a lit candle and a turtle would ward off a stalking vampire.

Alternately, they may surround the grave with a red woolen thread, ignite the thread, and wait until it was burnt up. One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia, in The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.

In Spain there are several traditions about beings with vampiric tendencies. In Asturias highlights the Guaxa , which is described as an old vampire who sticks his single tooth and sucks the blood of its victims.

In the Canary Islands there was also a belief in vampiric beings, here in the form of blood-sucking witch. One such example is provided by the legend of the Witches of Anaga in Tenerife.

Various regions of Africa have folkloric tales of beings with vampiric abilities: Female vampire-like monsters are the Soucouyant of Trinidad , and the Tunda and Patasola of Colombian folklore, while the Mapuche of southern Chile have the bloodsucking snake known as the Peuchen.

The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo.

There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never actually used to describe the deceased.

The deadly disease tuberculosis , or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.

Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death and her heart was cut out and burnt to ashes.

Among the Wyandots was the legend of the hooh-strah-dooh. The redbud was believed to be an effective ward. Rooted in older folklore, the modern belief in vampires spread throughout Asia with tales of ghoulish entities from the mainland, to vampiric beings from the islands of Southeast Asia.

India also developed other vampiric legends. It wanders around animating dead bodies at night, attacking the living much like a ghoul. Japan has no native legends about vampires.

However some Japanese mythical creatures bare some similarities to vampires, such as the Nure-onna who is a snake -like woman that feasts on human blood.

Japanese vampires made their first appearances in the Cinema of Japan during the late s. Legends of female vampire-like beings who can detach parts of their upper body occur in the Philippines , Malaysia , Cambodia and Indonesia.

There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night.

They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses off pregnant women. They also prefer to eat entrails specifically the heart and the liver and the phlegm of sick people.

The manananggal is described as being an older, beautiful woman capable of severing its upper torso in order to fly into the night with huge bat-like wings and prey on unsuspecting, sleeping pregnant women in their homes.

The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. On the night of her cremation, she rose again and brutally murdered the nomads.

In actuality, Lamae did not die at all but was rapidly healing from her wounds which frightened the local nedes. In fear of the disease that was spreading through Lamae, they tried to cremate her but she awoke and slaughtered them all.

Once she came to her senses she was horrified of what she had done and what she had become. She beseeched Arkay only for him to forsake her.

In retaliation, she began spreading vampirism to his followers. Since then, many mortals have made pacts with Molag Bal to become vampires, given rise to new bloodlines of vampires.

The beginnings of vampirism have variations in the Dunmeri Temple doctrine, with Molag Bal spawning the first vampire from a defeated foe, such as a Daedra Lord, a Temple Saint, or a "powerful beast creature".

These multiple pureblooded vampires can create their own bloodlines, with unique abilities and characteristics.

Vampirism is contracted through any sort of wound inflicted by a vampire; [1] however, since few survive attacks from a vampire, the actual contraction process is not understood well.

The newly-infected will exhibit no symptoms for the first 72 hours except perhaps nightmares and insomnia , and they can be cured of the disease like any other ailment.

After that time, however, the disease is said to be "incurable": The incubation process and the eventual turning of the vampires seems to vary as some individuals actually "die" and usually find themselves waking up in a tomb, others such as Lamae, actually began healing rapidly rather than dying, though a book about her incorrectly states she died before her transition.

Although a vampire spreading its disease to another can be seen as a form of reproduction, at least one male vampire has been documented to have fathered a child with a living partner.

The Journal of the Lord Lovidicus recounts how an Imperial impregnated an Orc woman, resulting in a male Orc child, but it is unknown if the child inherited the disease or any part of it.

The disease is thought to be incurable by the Dunmer of Morrowind. In his papers, the Armiger states that while he was a vampire, he undertook a task from Molag Bal at a shrine, and after the completion of the quest, he was cured of vampirism.

Finding and eliminating a bloodfather is very difficult, but by doing this, the whole clan of vampires will also be cured some of them may die instantly as a result of old age.

The witches of the Iliac Bay caught the attention of the Mages Guild by apparently curing the disease. Falion, a wizard of Morthal in the Fourth Era, was able to cure vampirism with a ritual involving a filled black soul gem and hence a human soul and an incantation invoking the powers of Oblivion.

Little else is known of the ritual. A less ideal option is exposure to lycanthropy. The blessings of Hircine can replace the infected with lycanthrope blood, but this comes with its own particular set of complications.

Molag Bal is the Daedric Prince who created the first vampire as well as the later pure-blooded vampires of other bloodlines and is consequently responible for the entire species, because of this, he is sometimes worshiped for this reason.

However, other Daedric Princes have contributed to the species as well; the Cyrodiilic bloodline honors Clavicus Vile for giving them the ability to blend in with mortals.

The vampires of Tamriel are commonly grouped by their territory and bloodline. Vampire clans normally consist of vampires of the same bloodline, or who share the same feeding grounds.

Some clans are powerful enough to have established strongholds and hold captured cattle: Lamae Beolfag was the first of her kind and like her successors, she created a bloodline.

Vampires of this particular bloodline have Noxiphilic Sanguivoria rather than Porphyric Hemophilia or Sanguinare Vampiris.

Noxiphilic Sanguivoria allows these Vampires to not burn or weaken in sunlight, but instead become more powerful once night falls. They have other abilities as well; some, such as invisibility, they share with other bloodlines.

It is also the only way for a soul shriven to be infected with this strand of vampirism. The exact name of this bloodline is unknown, but it was extremely common in the Second Era and could be encountered nearly all over Tamriel.

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This lets Vampires satisfy their thirst need without feeding on Sims. All too easy to use to keep thirst topped off, whether you go around the neighborhood looking for logs or catch masses of low level fish at the river.

These make Vampires uncomfortable and will help to keep them at bay. Vampires cannot drink plasma while around even a regular garlic sat on a table or other surface, these braids have a much larger aura about double.

This gives a big chunk of skill experience for the user, so it can help you finish leveling the skill. Necessary to make many of the vampire drinks in large quantities, such as Sunlight Reversal Cocktail.

Grow your own instead of searching the new neighborhood! These regenerate Vampire thirst. Your Sim will gain vampire energy as they walk about the daylight.

This can work wonderfully with the Fresh Chef reward trait from Master Chef, which stops foods and drinks from spoiling.

Takes 2 garlic and one plasma fruit to create. Reduces the chance of being affected by harmful vampire powers.

Author Since: Oct 02, 2012

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